TALKS & ARTICLES
Presentation at Smart Energy Conference, Sydney, Australia (10-11 April 2018).

Some results from techno-economic modelling of the operational optimisation of a hybrid large-scale solar PV and pumped hydro system in north Queensland. The talk provides an example of the potential of hybrid variable renewable generation and energy storage systems to provide strong revenue flows while generating dispatchable electrical power with low GHG emissions. 

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  1. The Transformation of the Australian Electricity Market - Are Renewables Making a Difference?
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    The Transformation of the Australian Electricity Market - Are Renewables Making a Difference?
    It is widely thought that the Australian electricity market is already in rapid transformation (AEMO Submission to NEM Review 2017; Electricity Network Transformation Roadmap, CSIRO and Energy Networks Australia 2017; Charging Forward paper, Clean Energy Council 2017), with some concerns that this may be a crisis situation (Powering through, Grattan Institute 2017). This change is being driven by many factors including government energy policies such as the federal Renewable Energy Target (RET) and state-based renewable energy schemes. Funding of renewable energy projects through grants and projects by bodies such as the Australian Renewable Energy Agency ( ARENA), changes in consumer behaviour in support of low-emissions and distributed electricity generation, and the rapidly decreasing cost of some renewable energy technologies are also key drivers of change in the electricity market (Electricity Network Transformation Roadmap, CSIRO and Energy Networks Australia 2017; Powering through, Grattan Institute 2017; Charging Forward paper, Clean Energy Council 2017). It is critical to maintain the security and stability of electricity supply and price during the transition to a substantially increased reliance on renewable (intermittent) electricity sources, taking into account the rise of distributed energy sources and eventually, battery storage technologies (AEMO Submission to NEM Review 2017; Charging Forward paper, Clean Energy Council 2017; Powering through, Grattan Institute 2017; Electricity Network Transformation Roadmap, CSIRO and Energy Networks Australia 2017). Meanwhile, the Independent Review into the Future Security of the National Electricity Market has already delivered its preliminary report and is due in the next few months to deliver its final report, including recommendations for NEM reform and broader government energy policy settings, to the Council of Australian Government (COAG) Energy Council.
  2. The Numbers from Snowy 2.0 - How Much Energy Storage Does Australia Really Need and Does the Snowy 2.0 Project Represent Value for Money?
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    The Numbers from Snowy 2.0 - How Much Energy Storage Does Australia Really Need and Does the Snowy 2.0 Project Represent Value for Money?
    This article discusses several key design and capital cost numbers associated with the proposed Snowy 2.0 pumped hydroelectric energy storage scheme in Australia. The numbers associated with the Snowy 2.0 Project are examined in the light of several studies which discuss the need for future energy storage in Australia under a variety of variable renewable energy electricity generation scenarios plus design parameters and capital costs associated with South Australia’s Tesla ‘Big Battery’. Amid passionate advocacy and mixed media attention, the go-ahead has been given for the next stage of planning of the Snowy 2.0 pumped hydro project as a key addition to Australia’s National Electricity Market (NEM). The Snowy 2.0 feasibility study was conducted in 2017 by SMEC engineering consultancy for Snow Hydro. The study investigated an expansion of the Snowy Mountains hydroelectric scheme (in south-eastern Australia) to include a major new pumped hydroelectric energy generation and storage capability. The proposed scheme would add 2000 MW of fast (minute scale) response time dispatchable power generation capacity and 350 000 MWh of energy storage (allowing it to generate power for more than seven days continuously without recharging) at a centralised location. This represents about 3.7% of the 2017 NEM total generating capacity and 0.175% of the total yearly NEM energy demand in one full energy discharge. Final investment decision is expected to be in late 2018, with first generation of power expected to be in 2024. The scheme would underpin the stability of the NEM in terms of system security and ‘firming’ reliability as coal-fired baseload power stations are progressively closed and variable renewable energy generation rapidly increases in Australia.

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS

 

Refereed Journal Articles

  1. Sloggett, G.J., Barton, N.G. & Spencer, S.J. 1986. “Fringing Fields in Disc Capacitors”, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen., 19, 2725.

  2. Spencer, S.J. 1991. “Global Magnetic Fields in Spiral Galaxies”. Proc. ASA, 9, 95.

  3. Barton, N.G., Li, C.-H. and Spencer, S.J. 1992. “Control of a Surface of Discontinuity in Continuous Thickeners”. A.M.S.J. Series B, 33,269.

  4. Spencer, S.J. and Cram, L.E. 1992. “On The Amplification Of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields In Spiral Galaxies By Galactic Winds”, Ap.J., 400,484.

  5. Spencer, S.J. & Cram, L.E. 1993. “Large-Scale Magnetic Fields in Spiral Galaxies”, Aust.J.Physics, 46, 195.

  6. Weller, K.R., Spencer, S.J., Gao, M.-W. and Liu, Y. 2000. “Tracer Studies and Breakage Testing in Pilot-Scale Stirred Mills”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 13, No. 4, 429-458.

  7. Gottlieb, P., Wilkie, G., Sutherland, D., Ho-Tun, E., Suthers, S., Perera, K., Jenkins, B., Spencer, S., Butcher, A. and Rayner, J. 2000. “Using Quantitative Electron Microscopy for Process Mineralogy Applications”, JOM, Vol. 52, No. 4 24-25.

  8. Spencer, S.J. and Sutherland, D.N., 2000. “Stereological Correction of Mineral Liberation Grade Distributions Estimated by Single Sectioning of Particles”, Image Analysis and Stereology. Vol. 19, No. 3, 175-182.

  9. Liu, Y. and Spencer, S.J. 2004. “Dynamic Simulation of Grinding Circuits”, Minerals Engineering, Vol. 17, 1189-1198.

  10. Spencer, S.J. 2007. “The two-dimensional source location problem for time differences of arrival at minimal element monitoring arrays”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 121 (6), 3579-3594.

  11. Spencer, S.J. 2010. “Closed-Form Analytical Solutions of the Time Difference of Arrival Source Location Problem for Minimal Element Monitoring Arrays”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 127 (5), 2943-2954.

  12. Yaroshchyk, P.; Death, D.L.; Spencer, S.J. 2010. “Quantitative measurements of loss on ignition in iron ore using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Partial Least Squares regression analysis”, Applied Spectroscopy, 64, 1335-1341.

  13. Yaroshchyk, P., Death, D.L. and Spencer, S.J. 2012. “Comparison of Principal Components Regression, Partial Least Squares Regression, Multi-Block Partial Least Squares Regression, and Serial Partial Least Squares Regression Algorithms for the Analysis of Fe in Iron Ore using LIBS”, Journal of  Analytical Atomic Spectroscopy, 27, 92-98.

  14. Zhang, W., Spencer, S.J. and Coghill, P. 2012. “An acoustic technique for measurement of bubble solids mass loading – (a) Fundamental study of single bubble”, Minerals Engineering, 36-38, 45-52.

  15. Spencer, S.J., Bruniges, R., Roberts, G., Sharp, V., Catanzano, A., Bruckard, W., Davey, K. and Zhang, W. 2012. “An acoustic technique for measurement of bubble solids mass loading: (b) Monitoring of Jameson cell flotation performance by passive acoustic emissions”, Minerals Engineering, 36-38, 21-30.

  16. Zhang, W., Spencer, S.J. and Coghill, P.J. 2013. “Characterisation of acoustic emissions resulting from particle collision with a stationary bubble”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 133 (5), 2523-2527.

  17. Spencer, S.J. 2015. “Mathematical models for the acoustic response of a solids-loaded encapsulated bubble”, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 137 (5), 2623-2641.


Refereed Conference Papers

  1. Spencer, S.J., Somers, M.L. & Pinczewski, W.V. 1987. Numerical Simulation of Gas Drainage from Coal Seams. S.P.E. 16857 Presented at 62nd Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition of S.P.E., Dallas, Texas, 1987.

  2. Spencer, S.J., Jenkins, D.R. & Barton, N.G. 1990. Modelling of Batch and Continuous Sedimentation of Suspensions, in Computational Techniques and Applications: CTAC-89. Proceedings of CTAC-89 conference, Brisbane. Ed. W.L. Hogarth & B.J. Noye (Hemisphere:New York), 501.

  3. Stokes, N., Howells, I., Spencer, S.J., Mooney, J., Fowkes, N., Jenkins, D.R. & Howden, P. 1991. Modelling the Backwash Process in Microfiltration, in Proceedings of the 1991 Mathematics-in-Industry Study Group. Ed. N.G. Barton, CSIRO Australia. Problem presented by J. Darzi, Memtec Pty. Ltd.

  4. Spencer, S.J. & Cram, L.E. 1993. Magnetic Field Generation by Galactic Winds, in The Cosmic Dynamo. Proceedings of IAU Symposium No. 157, September 1992, Potsdam, Germany. Ed. F. Krause, K.-H. Radler & G. Rudiger (Dordrecht:Kluwer), 357.

  5. Spencer, S.J. & Cram, L.E. 1993. Magnetic Fields in Spiral Galaxies, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion, November 1992, Toki, Japan. 383.

  6. Barton, N.G., Spencer, S.J. & Zhu, Z. 1993. Oil Blending: Mixing and Contamination, in Proceedings of the 1993 Mathematics-in-Industry Study Group. Ed. N.G. Barton, CSIRO Australia. Problem presented by C. Macpherson, Shell Australia.

  7. Spencer, S.J. 1998. "Stereological Correction Methods for Liberation Data" in Proceedings First Minerals Annual Conference, 13-14.

  8. Spencer, S.J. 1998. "Ball Mill Modelling" in Proceedings First Minerals Annual Conference, 30.

  9. Weller, K.R., Spencer, S.J., Gao, M.-W. and Liu, Y. 1998 "Tracer Studies and Their Relationship to Breakage Testing in Pilot-Scale Stirred Mills" in Minerals Engineering'98 Conference Abstracts.

  10. Spencer, S.J. and Sutherland, D.N. 1999. Minerals Liberation. In Proc. of the AJM Crushing and Grinding Conference, Kalgoorlie, May, 1999.

  11. Weller, K.R., Spencer, S.J. and Campbell, J.J. 1999. Determining Comminution Requirements. In Proc. of the AJM Crushing and Grinding Conference, Kalgoorlie, May, 1999.

  12. Spencer, S.J., Campbell, J.J., Weller, K.R. and Liu, Y. 1999. Acoustic Emissions Monitoring of SAG Mill Performance. In Proc. of the Intelligent Processing and Manufacturing of Materials Conference, Hawaii, July 1999. 939-946.

  13. Campbell, J.J. and Spencer, S.J. 2000. Performance Evaluation of High Pressure Grinding Rolls – Experiences, Outcomes and Future Directions. In Proc. of the Krupp Polysius Technical Seminar – Crushing, Grinding and Pyroprocessing of Minerals, Brisbane, May 2000.

  14. Spencer, S.J., Campbell, J.J., Weller, K.R. and Liu, Y. 2000. Monitoring of SAG Mill Performance Using Acoustic Emissions. In Proc. of the XXI International Mineral Processing Congress, Rome, July 2000. A4-13, A4-20.

  15. Spencer, S.J. and Sutherland, D.N. 2000. Stereological Correction of Mineral Liberation Grade Distributions. In Proc. of the XXI International Mineral Processing Congress, Rome, July 2000. Vol. A, A2-1, A2-8.

  16. Campbell, J.J., Spencer, S.J., Sutherland, D.N., Rowlands, T., Weller, K.R., Cleary, P., Hinde, A. 2001. SAG Mill Monitoring using Surface Vibrations. In Proc. of the International Conference on Autogenous and Semiautogenous Grinding Technology, Aug 30 - Sept 3 2001. Vancouver, Canada. Volume 2 pp. 373 - 385.

  17. Campbell, J.J., Holmes, R.J., Spencer, S.J., Sharp, V., Davey, K.J., Barker, D.G. and Phillips, P.L. 2003. The Collection and Analysis of Single Sensor Surface Vibration Data to Estimate Operating Conditions in Pilot-Scale and Production-Scale AG/SAG Mills. In Proc. of the XXII International Mineral Processing Congress, Cape Town, Ed. L. Lorenzen, SAIMM, pp. 280-288.

  18. Spencer, S.J., Liu, Y. and Sharp, V. 2004. Monitoring of Dense Medium Cyclone Performance and Condition by Acoustic Emissions. In Proc. of the Tenth Australian Coal Preparation Conference, Pokolbin, 17-21 October 2004. pp. 158-171.

  19. Spencer, S.J., Campbell, J.J., Sharp, V., Davey, K.J., Phillips, P.L., Barker, D.G. and Holmes, R.J. 2005. Multiple Sensor Surface Vibrations Analysis for Monitoring Tumbling Mill Performance. In Intelligence in a Small Materials World. Selected papers from The Fourth International Conference on Intelligent Processing and Manufacturing of Materials (IPMM-2003). Sendai, Japan. Ed: John A. Meech, Yoshiyuki Kawazoe, Vijay Kumar and John F. Maguire. pp. 359-376.

  20. Spencer, S.J., and Liu, Y., 2005. Statistical Signal Processing Methods for Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Dense Medium Cyclones. In Proc. of The Eighth Int. Symposium on Signal Processing and its Applications (ISSPA 2005), Sydney, Australia, Ed. A. Bouzerdoum and A. Beghdadi: IEEE, 2005, pp. 875-878.

  21. Campbell, J.J., Holmes, R.J., Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P.L., Barker, D.G. and Davey, K.J., 2006. “The Development of an On-Line Surface Vibration Monitoring System for AG/SAG Mills”. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Autogenous and Semiautogenous Grinding Technology, September 23 – 27 2006. Vancouver, Canada. Volume III, pp. 326 - 336.

  22. Spencer, S.J., Liu, Y., Sharp, V. and Bruniges, R., 2006. Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Dense Medium Cyclones. In Proc. of the XXIII International Mineral Processing Congress, Istanbul, 3-8 September 2006, pp. 1765-1770.

  23. Spencer, S.J., Sharp, V., Campbell, J.J., Holmes, R.J., Rowlands, T., Barker, D.G., Davey, K.J., and Phillips, P.L., 2006. Prediction of AG/SAG Mill Variables from Surface Vibrations. In Proc. of the XXIII International Mineral Processing Congress, Istanbul, 3-8 September 2006, pp. 44-49.

  24. Campbell, J.J., Holmes, R.J., Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P.L., Barker, D.G. and Davey, K.J., 2006. An On-Line Surface Vibration Monitoring System for AG/SAG Mills. In Proc. of the XXIII International Mineral Processing Congress, Istanbul, 3-8 September 2006, pp. 1747-1752.

  25. Spencer, S.J., Liu, Y., Bruniges, R. and Sharp, V., Adverse Operating Condition Monitoring of Dense Medium Cyclones by Acoustic Emissions. In Proc. of XV International Coal Preparation Congress and Exhibition (ICPCE 2006), Beijing, China, 16-20 October 2006, pp. 597-606.

  26. Spencer, S.J., Liu, Y., Bruniges, R. and Sharp, V., Detection of Adverse Operating Conditions in Dense Medium Cyclones by Acoustic Emission Monitoring. In Proc. of 11th Australian Coal Preparation Congress and Exhibition (ACPCE 2007), Sunshine Coast, 11-15 March 2007, pp. 256-270.

  27. Bruniges, R., Millen, M., Rainey, S., Sharp, V., Spencer, S.J., Stevens, R. and Williams, A., Development of a Commercial Prototype On-Line Adverse Operation Condition Alarm System for Dense Medium Cyclones. In Proc. Of 12th Australian Coal Preparation Congress and Exhibition (ACPCE 2008), Darling Harbour, 19-23 October 2008, pp. 96-108.

  28. Spencer, S.J., Bruniges, R., Sharp, V., Catanzano, A., Roberts, G., Bruckard, W. and Davey, K., Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Froth Flotation. In Proc. of the XXV International Mineral Processing Congress, Brisbane, 6-10 September 2010. pp. 3489-3500.

  29. Death, D., Yaroschyk, Y. And Spencer, S., Real Time and In Situ Measurement of Elemental Composition Using Lasers. In Proc. Of the XXV International Mineral Processing Congress, Brisbane, 6-10 September 2010, pp. 3651-3661.

  30. Zhang, W., Spencer, S.J. and Coghill, P. 2011. “On measurement of bubble solids mass loading: an acoustic technique”. Flotation’11 Conference Proceedings, November 2011.

  31. Spencer, S.J., Bruniges, R., Roberts, G., Sharp, V., Catanzano, A., Bruckard, W., Davey, K. and Zhang, W. 2011. “Monitoring of Jameson Cell Flotation Performance by Passive Acoustic Emissions”. Flotation’11 Conference Proceedings, November 2011.

  32. Davey, K.J., Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P.L., Barker, D.G. and Holmes, R.J. 2012. “Response of Primary Grinding Mill Performance to Changes in Operating Conditions using an On-line Surface Vibration Monitor”. In Proc. of the XXVI International Mineral Processing Congress, New Delhi, India, 24-28 September 2012. 

  33. Jackson, C.A., Spencer, S.J., Masters, J., Sharp, V., McEwan, A., Rainey, S. Catanzano, A., Roberts, G. and Millen, M. 2014. “Monitoring of M10000 IsaMill Process Performance by Passive Acoustic Emissions”. In. Proc. 12th AusIMM Mill Operators’ Conference, 1-3 September 2014.


Other Research Outputs

Patents

  1. CSIRO (Campbell, J.J., Liu. Y., Sharp, V., Spencer, S.J., and Weller, K.R.)
    Title: A System for Monitoring Mechanical Waves from a Moving Machine
    Priority Date:  9 July 1999
    PCT Application Number:  PCT/AU00/00821
    Country                Status                            Official Number
    Australia                Application allowed        764809
    Canada                   Application filed            2378570
    South Africa          Application filed            2002/0178
    USA                      Application allowed       6874364 B1

  2. CSIRO (Spencer, S.J., Zhang, W. and Coghill, P.)
    Title: A METHOD AND A DEVICE FOR ACOUSTIC ESTIMATION OF BUBBLE PROPERTIES
    Priority Date: 2014903402 27 Aug 2014 (AU) & 2014905193 22 Dec 2014 (AU)
    International Patent Application Number:  PCT/AU2015/050499
    Filed: 27 Aug 2015
    International Publication Number: WO 2016/029268 A1
             

Key Presentations

  1. Keynote Speaker at the RESA 2014 Resources Skills and Productivity Summit. Presentation “Monitoring of Mineral Processing for Productivity”. Adelaide, Australia, 6th June 2014.

  2. Presentation “Active Acoustic Estimation of Microbubble Properties” at the 5th International Symposium of Surface and interface of Biomaterials. Sydney, Australia, 7-10 April 2015.

  3. Presentation “Medical Microbubble and Liquids Properties by Active Acoustic Monitoring” at the 6th International Nanomedicine Conference. Sydney, Australia, 6-8 July, 2015.

  4. Presentation “Estimation of Medical Microbubble and Liquids Properties by Acoustic Resonance Interference Spectroscopy” at the 21st European Symposium on Ultrasound Contrast Imaging. Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 20-21 January, 2016.

  5. Invited Speaker at the 7th International Symposium of Fine Bubble Technology 2016. Presentation "Medical Microbubbles and Industrial Flotation". Sydney, Australia, 25th July, 2016.

  6. Invited Speaker at the Emerging Sensing Technologies Summit 2016. Presentation “Microbubble Acoustic Resonance Interference Spectroscopy”. Sydney, Australia, 7-9th December, 2016.


Key LinkedIn Articles

  1. “Ideas to Innovations @ Emerging Sensing Technologies Summit 2016”, 10th February, 2017.

  2. “What is the ‘best’ wind turbine design and wind farm layout?”, 1st May, 2017.

  3. “The Transformation of the Australian Electricity Market – are Renewables Making a Difference?”, 25th May, 2017.

  4. “Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Electricity Emissions Intensity – Where Is Australia Now and Where Do We Want To Go?”, 21st June, 2017.

  5. “Is a Renewables Dominated Electricity Market Economically Feasible?”, 18th July, 2017.

  6. “Revenue Maximisation of the Operation of a Hybrid Large-Scale Solar PV and Pumped Hydro System in Australia”, 8th November, 2017.

  7. “The Numbers from Snowy 2.0 – How Much Energy Storage Does Australia Really Need and Does the Snowy 2.0 Project Represent Value for Money?”, 15th January, 2018.  


Technical/Confidential Reports

  1. Spencer, S.J. 1990. Modelling of Continuous Sedimentation of Suspensions. Technical Report NSW89/22, CSIRO dms.

  2. Jenkins, D.R., Spencer, S.J. & Stokes, N. 1992. Time-Varying Heat Conduction in an Inkjet Printer - II. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C/92/31, CSIRO dms. Prepared for CISRA-Canon Pty. Ltd.

  3. Spencer, S.J. & Jenkins, D.R. 1992. Electromagnetic Braking of Molten Steel in a Continuous Caster. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C/92/53, CSIRO dms.Prepared for B.H.P. Research, Newcastle Laboratories.

  4. Jenkins, D.R. & Spencer, S.J. 1993. Coke Oven Wall Pressure Final Project Report. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C/93/38, CSIRO dms. Prepared for BHP Australia Coal.

  5. Jenkins, D.R. & Spencer, S.J. 1993. Heat Transfer through Refractory Walls. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C/93/54, CSIRO dms. Prepared for BHP Australia Coal.

  6. Spencer, S.J. & Jenkins, D.R. 1993. Fastflo Magnetohydrodynamics Module. Technical Report DMS-C/93/83, CSIRO dms.

  7. Jenkins, D.R. & Spencer, S.J. 1994. Coke Oven Wall Pressure Model. Status Report: February 1994. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C/94/13, CSIRO dms. Prepared for BHP Australia Coal.

  8. Spencer, S.J. & Jenkins, D.R. 1994. Heat Flux Control for Experimental Coke Oven. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C/94/44, CSIRO dms. Prepared for BHP Australia Coal.

  9. Jenkins, D.R. & Spencer, S.J. 1994. Coke Oven Wall Pressure Report. Status Report: November 1994. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C/94/71, CSIRO dms. Prepared for BHP Australia Coal.

  10. Spencer, S.J. & Jenkins, D.R. 1995. Heat Transfer at the Top of the BHP Research Oven. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C/95/25, CSIRO dms. Prepared for BHP Australia Coal.

  11. Spencer, S.J. 1995. Numerical Modelling of the AMBRI Membrane Biosensor. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C/95/49, CSIRO dms. Prepared for CSIRO Division of Applied Physics as part of the CRC for Molecular Engineering and Technology: Sensing and Diagnostic Technologies.

  12. Jenkins, D.R. & Spencer, S.J. 1995. Coke Oven Wall Pressure Project. Status Report: June 1995. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C/95/54, CSIRO dms. Prepared for BHP Australia Coal.

  13. Spencer, S.J. 1996. Adaptive Mesh Modelling of Heat and Mass Transfer in Coke Ovens. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C /96/10, CSIRO dms. Prepared for BHP Australia Coal.

  14. Spencer, S.J. 1996. Mathematical Modelling of Membrane Biosensor Operation. Confidential Technical Report DMS-C /96/16, CSIRO dms. Prepared for CSIRO Division of Applied Physics/CRC as part of the CRC for Molecular Engineering and Technology: Sensing and Diagnostic Technologies.

  15. Spencer, S.J. 1996. Townsville Airshed Modelling Study. Report SAS-ICMU 96/1, QDoE SAS. Prepared for QDoE Northern Region as part of the Townsville Sub Regional Planning Group.

  16. Spencer, S.J. 1997. South-East Queensland Regional Airshed Modelling Study. Report SAS-ICMU 97/1 QDoE SAS. Prepared for SEQRAQS Technical Advisory Group.

  17. Weller, K.R., Gao, M.-W., Liu, Y. and Spencer, S. 1998. "Tracer Studies and Their Relationship to Breakage Testing" in The Methods and Benefits of Fine Grinding Ores. AMIRA Report P336A/9, 124-155.

  18. Weller, K.R. and Spencer, S. 1998. "Concluding Comments – Fine Particle Breakage in Stirred Mills" in The Methods and Benefits of Fine Grinding Ores. Australian Minerals Industry Research Association Report P336A/9, 221-224.

  19. Ilievski, D., Spencer, S., Schibeci, M. and Liu, J. 2000 "Development of a New Test for Hydrate and SGA Breakage". Australian Minerals Industry Research Association Report P575.

  20. Campbell, J., Spencer, S. and Sutherland, D. 2000. "Hydrocyclone Testing of Brick Fines". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-1500.

  21. Weller, K.R., Spencer, S.J. and Sharp, V. 2000. "On the Feasibility of using Surface Vibration Measurements to Monitor the Performance of the SAG2 Mill of PT Freeport Indonesia, Irian Jaya". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-1512.

  22. Spencer, S.J. 2001. "Development of a Robust Stereological Correction Procedure for Grade Estimation Based on Single Sections of Mineralogical Samples" CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-949.

  23. Spencer, S.J. and Jenkins, B. 2001. "A Stereological Correction Method for LEO QEMSCAN Feed, Concentrate and Tails Studies". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-950.

  24. Spencer, S.J. 2001. "A Literature Review of the Design and Operation of Industrial Coal Attrition Mills". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-1564.

  25. Spencer, S.J., Campbell, J.J. and Sutherland, D.N. 2001. "Experimental Studies of Grinding in an Industrial Coal Attrition Mill". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-1582.

  26. Weller. K.R., Rowlands, T.G., Spencer, S.J. and Sharp, V. 2001. "Second Test of CSIRO Surface Vibration Monitoring Equipment on the SAG2 Mill of PT Freeport Indonesia, Irian Jaya". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-1616.

  27. Campbell, J.J., Spencer, S.J., Sharp, V., Rowlands, T., Morton, D., Cleary, P., Nielsen, P., Barker, D., Davey, K., Phillips, P., Hinde, A. and Holmes, R.J. 2001. "AMIRA Project P667 –SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations, First Progress Report". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-1802.

  28. Spencer, S.J. and Trang, S. 2002. "A Suite of Heap Bioleaching Process Models". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-1864.

  29. Davey, K.J., Campbell, J.J., Spencer, S.J. and Phillips, P.L. 2002. "Plant Trial of AG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations at the WMC Kambalda Nickel Operation". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-1868.

  30. Campbell, J.J., Spencer, S.J., Davey, K., Sharp, V., Morton, D., Gross, L., Cleary, P., Barker, Phillips, P., Nielsen, P. and Holmes, R.J. 2002. "AMIRA Project P667 – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations, Second Progress Report". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-1995.

  31. Campbell, J.J., Spencer, S.J., Davey, K., Phillips, P., Morton, D., Gross, L., Cleary, P., Stokes, N., Sharp, V., Barker, D. and Holmes, R.J. 2002. "AMIRA Project P667 – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations, Third Progress Report". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2069.

  32. Campbell, J.J., Spencer, S.J., Davey, K., Phillips, P., Sharp, V., Morton, D., Cleary, P., Barker, D. and Holmes, R.J. 2003. "AMIRA Project P667 – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations, Final Report". CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2192.

  33. Aylmore, M.G. and Spencer, S.J. 2003. “Determination of residence time distribution in Fimiston circuits”. AJ Parker CRC for Hydrometallurgy (CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2234).

  34. Spencer, S.J. and Rumball, J.A. 2003. “Review of Hydrometallurgy Flowsheeting Packages”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2316.

  35. Campbell, J.J., Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P., Barker, D., Morton, D., Cleary, P. and Holmes, R.J. 2004. “AMIRA Project P667A – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations, First Progress Report”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2451.

  36. Spencer, S.J., Liu, Y. and Sharp, V. 2004. “Development of an Acoustic Emission Soft-Sensor for Hicom Mill Load”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2477.

  37. Campbell, J.J, Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P., Barker, D., Morton, D., Rowlands, T., Cleary, P. and Holmes, R.J. 2004. “AMIRA Project P667A – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations, Second Progress Report”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2575.

  38. Spencer, S.J., Liu, Y. and Sharp, V. 2005. “Process and Condition Monitoring of Dense Medium Cyclones by Acoustic Emission Monitoring”. Australian Coal Association Research Program Project number C12052 Final Report.

  39. Campbell, J.J, Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P., Barker, D., Davey, K., Rowlands, T., Cleary, P., McCaffrey, N. and Holmes, R.J. 2005. “AMIRA Project P667A – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations, Third Progress Report”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2690.

  40. Liu, Y., Campbell, J., Rowlands, T., Price, R. and Spencer, S. 2005. “Acoustic Emission Monitoring of a Stirred Ball Mill”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2751.

  41. Campbell, J.J, Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P., Barker, D., Davey, K., Owen, P., Cleary, P., and Holmes, R.J. 2005. “AMIRA Project P667A – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations, Fourth Progress Report”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2856.

  42. Spencer, S.J. 2006. “A Sighter Test for Xstrata Regrind Mill Contact Acoustic Emission Monitoring”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2906.

  43. Campbell, J.J, Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P., Barker, D., Davey, K., Owen, P., Cleary, P., and Holmes, R.J. 2006. “AMIRA Project P667A – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations, Fifth Progress Report”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-2969.

  44. Campbell, J.J, Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P., Barker, D., Davey, K., Owen, P., Cleary, P., and Holmes, R.J. 2006. “AMIRA Project P667A – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations, Final Report”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-3070.

  45. Spencer, S.J., Liu, Y. and Bruniges, R. 2007. “Detection of Adverse Operating Conditions in Dense Medium Cyclones by Acoustic Emission Monitoring”. Australian Coal Association Research Program Project number C14063 Final Report. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-3102.

  46. Spencer, S.J., Bruniges, R., Williams, A., Sharp, V., Rainey, S., Roberts, G., Stevens, R. and Millen, M. 2008. “Acoustic Emission Soft-Sensor Alarm System for Dense Medium Cyclones”. Australian Coal Association Research Program Project number C16045 Final Report. 

  47. Anderson, C., Bruniges, R., Coghill, P. and Spencer, S.J. 2008. “Monitoring IsaMill Performance with Acoustic Emission and the UltraPS-AD”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-3530.

  48. Davey, K.J., Phillips, P.L., Spencer, S.J., Barker, D., Owen, P., Cleary, P. and Holmes, R.J. 2009. “AMIRA Project P667B – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations – First Project Report”. CSIRO Minerals Report DMR-3629, May 2009.

  49. Davey, K.J., Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P.L., Barker, D. and Holmes, R.J. 2010. “AMIRA Project P667B – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations - Second Progress Report”. Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship Report EP-102204, May 2010.

  50. Death, D., Eberhardt, J., Spencer, S., Yaroschyk, Y., Giang, P., Rainey, S., Roberts, G., McEwan, A., Williams, A. and Broadley, P. 2010. “LIBS Analyser – Stage II Report”. Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship Report EP-11753, November 2010.

  51. Davey, K.J., Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P.L., Barker, D. and Holmes, R.J. 2010. “AMIRA Project P667B – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations - Third Progress Report”. Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship Report EP-106547, December 2010.

  52. Spencer, S.J., Bruniges, R., Roberts, G., Sharp, V., Catanzano, A., Bruckard, W. and Davey, K. 2011. “Flotation Performance Monitoring by Acoustic Emissions”. Australian Coal Association Research Program Project number C17042 Final Report. Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship Report EP-106229, April 2011.

  53. Davey, K.J., Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P.L., Barker, D. and Holmes, R.J. 2011. “AMIRA Project P667B – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations - Fourth Progress Report”. Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship Report EP-113317, May 2011.

  54. Spencer, S.J., Catanzano, A., Roberts, R., Williams, A., Rainey, S. and Millen, M. 2011. “Evaluation of the CSIRO AE Analyser for Monitoring of the Relative Deportment of Grinding Media and Stirring Disk Abnormalities in IsaMills”. Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship Report EP-115817, June 2011.

  55. Spencer, S.J. 2011. “Addendum - Evaluation of the CSIRO AE Analyser for Monitoring of the Relative Deportment of Grinding Media and Stirring Disk Abnormalities in IsaMills”. Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship Report EP-115816, August 2011.

  56. Davey, K.J., Spencer, S.J., Phillips, P.L., Barker, D.G., Owen, P. and Holmes, R.J. 2012. “AMIRA Project P667B – SAG Mill Monitoring via Surface Vibrations – Final Project Report”. Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship Report EP-123654, May 2012.

  57. Spencer, S.J. 2012. “IsaMill Particle Size Analysis by Acoustic Emissions”. Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship Report EP-08-05-12-13 for Xstrata Technology, June 2012.

  58. Spencer, S.J. 2013. “Mathematical Models for the Size and Attached Solids Mass of a Single Gas Bubble in Liquid as a Function of Forced Acoustic Response Characteristics”, CPSE Report EP132626, September 2013.

  59. Spencer, S.J. 2013. “Elemental Abundance Prediction for the BHPB DNA Tool by Multivariate Statistical Modelling”, Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship Report EP1310110 for BHPB Iron Ore, December 2013.

  60. Spencer, S.J., Jackson, C., Sharp, V., Masters, J., Catanzano, A., Rainey, S., McEwan, A. And Millen, M. 2013. “Development and extended field trial of a commercial prototype IsaMill AE Analyser”, Minerals Down Under National Research Flagship Report EP1311170, December 2013.

  61. Fraser, S., Spencer, S.J., Tickner, J., Smith, C., Lofgren, N., Malos, J., Rojc, A., Eberhardt, J. and Preston, R. 2014. “BHPB Downhole Neutron Activation Logging Tool: A Report on CSIRO Activities Undertaken During the Proving Period – Stage 7", CMR Report EP139962, February 2014.

  62. Spencer, S.J. 2014. “Mathematical models for the acoustic response of a solids loaded encapsulated bubble”, CPSE Report EP142902.

  63. Jackson, C. and Spencer, S.J. 2014. “Acoustic Emission Monitoring of Hydrate Formation in the CSIRO Hytra Loop”, CPSE Report EP1472737.

  64. Schmidt, A. and Spencer, S.J. 2016. "Active Acoustic Monitoring for Bubble Properties", CMR Report EP162120, May 2016.

  65. Hubble, L., Raguse, B., Wieczorek, L., Chow, E., Cooper, J., Sosa Pintos, A. and Spencer, S.J. 2016. "Chemiresistor sensor arrays: towards a universal molecular fingerprinting tool", CM Report EP161954, May 2016.

  66. Hubble, L.J., Cooper, J.S., Sosa Pintos, A., Chow, E., Spencer, S.J., Raguse, B. and Wieczorek, L. 2016. "CRC Alertness – Chemiresistor Project: Phase 1 Report", CM Report EP164692, July 2016.